Architectural and Engineering Glossary



Any temporary work in timber,as formwork for concrete,shoring,etc.

Time And Materials (T&M)

The time and total cost of all materials required to complete a construction job;often used where the cost of the job is otherwise difficult to estimate.

Time Of Completion

The date established in the contract,by name or by number of days,for substantial completion of the work.Also see completion date and contract time.

Time Of Concentration

In a storm water drainage system,the time required for storm water to travel from the most remote portion of the tributary area to an inlet or drain.

Time Of Haul

In production of ready mixed concrete,the period from first contact between mixing water and cement to the discharge from the mixer of the freshly mixed concrete.

Time Of Set

See initial setting time,final setting time.

Time System

A system of clocks and control devices,with or without a master timepiece,which will indicate time at various remote locations;the master timepiece may have additional facilities to program other systems,such as bells.

Time-delay Fuse

Any fuse in an electric circuit that takes more than 12 seconds to open at a 200% load.

Timely Completion

Completion of the work,1 or designated portion thereof on or before the date required.

Tin Roofing

A roof covering of flexible tinplat or terneplate metal.

Tin Saw

A saw used for cutting kerfs in bricks.

Tin Snips

Shears with a blunt nose;used for cutting thin sheet metal.


A very thin sheet of tin,now replaced by other foils such as aluminum.


1.A support which reduces the sag in a long line used in laying brick.2.A flexible metal clip used to hold a sheet of glass,metal,etc.


Coating a metal with solder or tin alloy,prior to soldering or brazing it. 


Thin iron or steel sheets which have been plated with tin as a protection against oxidation.

Tool Pad

A tool,consisting of handle and clamp or chuck,for holding small tool bits,such as awls,screwdriver blades,etc.

Tooled Joint

Any masonry joint that has been prepared with a tool before the mortar in  the joint has set rigidly.

Tooled Surface

A tooled finish.

Tooled Work

See batted work.


1.Compressing and shaping the face of a mortar joint.2.See tooled finish.3.See batted work.4.Compacting and contouring a sealant  in a joint.

Tooling Time

After the application of a sealant in a joint,the time interval during which tooling,3 is possible.


1.In a paint film,a fine texture imparted either by pigments or by the abrasives used in sanding;this texture provides a good base for the adhesion of a subsequent coat of paint.2.A dogtooth, 2.

Tooth Chiseling

Cutting parallel stripes on the surface of a stone slab with a stonecutter’s chisel. 

Tooth Ornament,dogtooth

A decoration,generally in the hollow of a Gothic molding,consisting of four-leaved flowers,the centers of which project in a point.

Toothed Plate,bulldog Plate

A toothed metal plate that serves as a timber connector.

Toothed Ring

A metal ring with toothed edges which serves as a timber connector.


Same as dogtooth,2.


Cutting out alternate courses in old work to provide a bond for new work.

Toothing Plane

A carpenter’s plane,the cutting edge of which is formed into a series of small teeth,usually to roughen a surface.

Top Beam

A collar beam.

Top Car Clearance

The shortest vertical distance between the top of an elevator car (or crosshead,if provided on the car) and the nearest overhead obstruction when the car floor is level with the top terminal landing.

Top Course Tile

The uppermost course of tile,laid along the ridge of a roof;usually shorter  than the others.

Top Cut

The vertical cut at the upper end of a rafter.

Top Dressing

A layer,usually thin,of manure,humus,loam,etc.,to improve soil conditions in planted areas.

Top Form

A concrete form required on the upper or outer surfaces of a sloping slab,a thin shell,etc. 

Top Lap

In shingle roofing,the shortest distance between (a) the lower edge of an overlapping shingle and (b) the upper edge of the lapped unit in the course directly below.

Top Mop

See pour coat.

Top Out

To complete the uppermost course or the highest structural member in a construction. 

Top Plate

1.The top horizontal member of a frame building to which the rafters are fastened.

Top Rail

1.The top horizontal structural member of any piece of framing,as a door or sash.2.A rail which is the top member of a railing system.

Top-and-bottom Cap

One of the horizontal metal channels,attached at the jobsite to the top and to the bottom of a hollow metal door which does not have an integral flush top or bottom.

Top-hinged In-swinging Window

A window having a sash (ventilator, 2) which is hinged at the top and swings in at the bottom.


The final coat of paint applied to a surface;usually applied over a primer and/or one or more undercoats or surfacers.


See stupa.

Topiary Work

The clipping or trimming of plants,trees,and shrubs,usually evergreens,into ornamental and fantastic shapes.


Lighting from above.

Topographic Survey

The configuration of a surface including its relief and the locations of its natural and man-made features,usually recorded on a drawing showing surface variations by means of contour lines indicating height above or below a fixed datum.


1.A layer of high quality concrete or mortar placed to form a floor surface on a concrete base.2The mixture of marble chips and matrix which,when properly processed,produces a terrazzo surface.

Topping Coat

A floated coat.